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The researchers collected roughly 70-metre core samples from the lake and painstakingly counted the layers to come up with a direct record stretching back 52,000 years.Preserved leaves in the cores — “they look fresh as if they’ve fallen very recently”, Bronk Ramsey says — yielded 651 carbon dates that could be compared to the calendar dates of the sediment they were found in.The more accurate carbon clock should yield better dates for any overlap of humans and Neanderthals, as well as for determining how climate changes influenced the extinction of Neanderthals.“If you have a better estimate of when the last Neanderthals lived to compare to climate records in Greenland or elsewhere, then you’ll have a better idea of whether the extinction was climate driven or competition with modern humans,” says Paula Reimer, a geochronologist at Queen’s University in Belfast, UK.To put it simply, as well as being famous for a staggering amount of landmarks such as Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, The London Eye, The Millennium Dome, Hyde Park, Tower Bridge, and the River Thames, London has a lot more to offer.As a thriving hub of business and finance and also a centre for all manner of media and TV, London entices a massive array of people from all walks of life, career paths and cultures and welcomes them with open arms!
Marine records, such as corals, have been used to push farther back in time, but these are less robust because levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere and the ocean are not identical and tend shift with changes in ocean circulation.
Carbon dating is used to work out the age of organic material — in effect, any living thing.
The technique hinges on carbon-14, a radioactive isotope of the element that, unlike other more stable forms of carbon, decays away at a steady rate.
Bronk Ramsey’s team aimed to fill this gap by using sediment from bed of Lake Suigetsu, west of Tokyo.
Two distinct sediment layers have formed in the lake every summer and winter over tens of thousands of years.
And of course, other things people from the UK and around the world would associate with the capital of England include; the magnificent London 2012 Olympics, the city’s iconic black cabs, the double-decker red sightseeing buses and naturally, the Royal Family.