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and accordingly humans have been proposed to have reached Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America by this time.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a much later date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago, moving across the ice from Siberia into Alaska.
Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago.
It was not until the nineteenth century that the work of men such as John Lloyd Stephens, Eduard Seler and Alfred P.
Maudslay, and of institutions such as the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, led to the reconsideration and criticism of the European sources.
Genetic evidence found in Amerindians' maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia.
Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continent, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.