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Although the size is measured in 4-octet units, the length of this header needs to be a multiple of 8 octets if carried in an IPv6 packet.This restriction does not apply to an Authentication Header carried in an IPv4 packet.Optionally a sequence number can protect the IP sec packet's contents against replay attacks, The length of this Authentication Header in 4-octet units, minus 2.For example, an AH value of 4 equals 3×(32-bit fixed-length AH fields) 3×(32-bit ICV fields) − 2 and thus an AH value of 4 means 24 octets.
ESP also supports encryption-only and authentication-only configurations, but using encryption without authentication is strongly discouraged because it is insecure.
AH ensures connectionless integrity by using a hash function and a secret shared key in the AH algorithm.
AH also guarantees the data origin by authenticating IP packets.
Working Group drafted in December 1993 as a security extension for SIPP.
This ESP was originally derived from the US Department of Defense SP3D protocol, rather than being derived from the ISO Network-Layer Security Protocol (NLSP).
IPsec includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to use during the session.